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Friday, December 30, 2011

Google Adsense is one of the Best

I have been reading many posts saying that "Adsense dont pay me" "They are not accepting me" "They removed my account for no reason" "They dint pay me" etc.

So here's what i feel, I have been trying to get accepted by Adsense from many days,my application was rejected a lot of times(approx 7times),but finally it got accepted.

Now i am not fearing about Earning Money,the only fear is that "What if i lose my Adsense Account like the others say?"

If Adsense dont accept you then you should Sign Up for other affiliating companies,though they dont pay you well it's your only choice.

Take it as a stepping stone to Adsense.

I feel that i too shouted at Adsense a lot but just think once If you are saying that Adsense is not good then why are everyone running after it?

You dont beleive me? Then Sign Up for Bidvertiser,Infolinks,the way they pay you,it'll take a month to earn 0.50$.

Kontera Ads are kind of the same,Chitika in other hand is Good only if your blog traffic's more in Cannada and USA.

So overall its Google Adsense which wins the race.

Thursday, December 29, 2011

How To Create a Blog/Website and Earn Money?

If you want to create a blog then go to www.blogger.com and create a blog first.

1.Creating a blog is very easy.

2.Then Add atleast 15 Posts to it.









3.Then go to www.adsense.com and sign up for Google Adsense, but first you must follow the conditions below
http://clubnxt.blogspot.com/2011/12/conditions-for-google-adsense.html?

4.There are other Affiliate companies like Smowtion,Chitika,Infolinks,Kontera etc.

Smowtion Ads: Go to www.smowtion.com and Sign up for Smowtion Ads.

Chitika Ads: www.chitika.com

Infolinks: www.infolinks.com

Kontera: www.kontera.com

Sign Up for above Affiliate Companies and keep the best Affiliate Company Ads to your blog.

How To Create A Website/Own a Custom Domain?

If you want,then you can Own a Custom Domain in the "Settings" Option in www.blogger.com , they'll charge you $10(approx) per year.Then you will be owning your own domain.

For Eg: If you name your blog (www.example.blogspot.com) then after you own the domain it'll be (www.example.com).

Or You can go to sites like www.bigrock.com and there you can create your own website for approx. $9 per year.

Friday, December 23, 2011

How Can i get more traffic to my Blog/Website?

Want more people to visit your blog?

Creating a blog and adding the ads to your blogs is easy but few affiliate company like www.tribalfusion.com requires atleast 5k views per month.

Getting people to visit your blog is the biggest problem for a blogger especially a new blogger.

So i think i ll give few tips which can work for you.

Few affiliate companies will reject you easily,cause you dont have enough pageviews.
As it doesnt matter them because remember your new blogger , its like your few drops of water trying to get into the ocean and rejecting a few drops wont end up in drying the ocean..

So there are many social networking sites like facebook,twitter.

Create a fan page..Dont forget to post your blog views to your facebook page, click "like on other pages".Go to their page and write your blog url in their wall.

Go to twitter and follow all those who follow you, type #teamfollowback in profile description.Hence as your followers increases and so tell them to check your blog..

I will help you to increase your pageviews, mail me at nxtworld007@gmail.com or follow me on twitter at www.twitter.com/nxtvignesh007

Thursday, December 22, 2011

Conditions For Google ADSENSE

1.Your blog/website must be unique,the content must not be copied from any other blog/website,if you do copy then Google may never accept your blog.

2.Your blog's must be active for atleast 6months(only in India and China)

3.Your blog/website must not contain pornographic content.

4.Your Blog must not promote porn,drugs etc.

5.If you follow the above four options then they will accept your blog even if it has 50Pageviews per day.Because PageViews Doesnt Matter.

Google ADSENSE or Bidvertiser??

If your trying to find an answer to the above then dont,there's no use of it.

Google ADSENSE:

One of the famous Pay-Per-Click service,allmost every blogger has a dream of having this service on his/her blog.

Google pays you higher than any other affiliate company,only thing is that first they must accept your blog for which you must follow few coniditions below

http://clubnxt.blogspot.com/2011/12/conditions-for-google-adsense.html

If they accept you then you can ads the even to your Youtube Account,hence your videos can earn you money.

Bidvertiser:

Not so popular affiliate company,beleive me it will take upto a month to earn just 0.10$.

Bidvertiser payment is so low that even if they dont accept then it wont affect your bank balance.

Bidvertiser ads are boring and it makes your blog/website look old.

So Our Review: You wanna earn money then go for ADSENSE.

Wednesday, December 21, 2011

What if ADSENSE reject my application?

Here's one more question to which everyone wants an answers!!

Remember in every field there are competitors, so even in Online ADVERTISING there are other companies.

I Would prefer 1st:SMOWTION ADS(www.smowtion.com)

2nd:Chitika ADS(www.chitika.com)

I wouldnt prefer

Bidvertiser(www.bidvertiser.com)

Kontera(www.kontera.com)

I prefer Smowtion because they pay you well and their customer support is so friendly that you never wanna stop chatting with them.

Bidvertiser pays you in such a way that it would take lot of time even just to earn 0.01$ .

If your traffic source is more in regions like USA and Canada then you should go for Chitika ADS..

There are lot of option and choices its upto you that which you will select!!!!

Tuesday, December 20, 2011

A True Fact on ADSENSE

You have lots of time with you and you write your own thoughts the beleive me Google will accept your ADSENSE account.


Normally people want the information so that they ll get an answer to their question,

Nobody cares which blog or site it is untill the information is correct!!

Few people dont copy the contents but still their blogs are rejected!! And you can say nothing to google if they reject your ADSENSE application which is the worst part of ADSENSE!!!!!!

Will Google ADSENSE accept my Blog??

The question everybody will be asking in Yahoo Answers,Facebook,Twitter etc!!!!!

My adsense has been rejected,because i think i dont have a new content on my blog....

My Buddy created a blog on Product Reviews Etc! But his Adsense account was rejected too.

Reason:Nobody Knows!!

I beleive all they want is more pageviews, cause i see many blogs with Google Ads placed on it inspite the content is copied!!!!

Whom shall i complaint this too??

Only thing i can do is to stand infront of the mirror and ask myself "Did i waste a whole month type new things to my blog and my account was rejected.But the blog which copied content from other websites was accepted! Why the hell is these things happening?"

So i say "Dont Dream that you ll earn lot of money through blogging, you have luck with you then its ok or else just go and stand in front of the mirror and do what i did"

Copying Blog Content:Bad Option for Google ADSENSE

Copying content from other blogs are not a better option if you copy stuff from other popular websites.

www.copyscape.com will catch you if you copy contents from other blogs/websites.

What if the other website belongs to me?? What if i wrote the same content on the other website??

If your copying a content and if you give a link to the original post at the end its a better thing to do..

Unique Blogs

Thinking of posting my own thoughts to my blog,but will that make my blog unique?? If it was so then why are the social networking sites for??????

Its a bad thing that copying stuff from other sites will not make your blog unique, then let me ask this ..... I create a blog about cars what the hell shall i post?? The Car specifications will be the same in every website!!

Example 2:I create a blog about mobiles.... Can i change the mobile specifications?? How can they tell that i stole stuff from other sites???

These things make me angry, but i am helpless, i havent even earned a dollar through my blog and i was dreaming about buying an IPAD worth 500$ LOL!

Gotta Say "Dreams are crazy,But they make us smile for a while"

A Message For Bloggers On Google ADSENSE

Its great to create a blog,share our thoughts and all other stuff.

After a year later,i learnt that we can make money through blogs.

First thing i did was submitting my blog to Google Adsense.

And Even before they accepted my blog i started dreaming day and night about what i ll do with the money i earn from adsense.

But they dint even take a day to reject my blog, My Dreams broke before it began.

I Was so angry that i deleted all my posts, goota say few of my posts were taken from other websites,but i feel i did it cause i had no other choice,there's lot more thing to do than just blogging.I Cant Write about stuff all myself,i gotta write exams and have other things to do.

Its bit difficult to blog but it feels great once you create one.

So Google adsense still dint approve me,was dishearted.But i switched my plans i went to other Affiliate Company like www.cj.com , www.kontera.com , www.smowtion.com , www.infolinks.com . Beleive me they all will accept your blogs for sure. I will surely explain about each advertising company, but i have a thought for all of you: "If your feeling that blogging will make you rich? Then please forget it.Its not that easy,especially when you copy stuff from other sites"

Sunday, December 18, 2011

Tigers are being killed everyday.
There are being traded at a very expensive cost,though its illegal!
It was calculated that In India only 1411 tigers were left few years ago.
Its India's Special Animal but still it looks like it ll be extinct in very next few years.
Bengal Tiger one of the best in the Tigers.Probably "The King Of Tigers".
Tiger Skins,Jaws etc are sold like anything in many countries.
But All We can do is just to say "Save Tigers" , everything else is in in the hands of the people.

Friday, December 16, 2011

Samsung Galaxy Tab:Full Specifications




Price Rs. 38,000 (approx 800$)
Frequency Quad Band
Phone Style Touchscreen

OS Android 2.2
Thickness 11.98mm
Length 190.09
Width 120.45
Weight 380g

Built-in Memory 16/32GB
Additional Memory 32GB via microSD
High-speed Data GPRS, HSDPA, GPRS, Wi-Fi, EDGE
Connectivity Bluetooth 3.0, USB
Screen Size 7.0 inch TFT-LCD, WSVGA (1024 x 600)
Secondary Screen Size None
Screen Colours N/A
Camera Yes
Camera Resolution 3 megapixels
Flash Yes
Ringtones Polyphonic, MP3, Truetone
Music Player Yes
Music Formats MP3/WAV/eAAC+/AC3/FLAC player
Radio No
Speaker Yes
Internet Yes
Browser HTML
Games Yes
Battery 7 hour movie play



The Samsung Galaxy Tab is an Android-based tablet computer produced by Samsung introduced on 2 September 2010 at the IFA in Berlin.

The Galaxy Tab has a 7-inch (180 mm) TFT-LCD touchscreen, Wi-Fi capability, a 1.0 GHz ARM Cortex-A8 Samsung Exynos 3110 (code-named "Hummingbird") processor, the Swype input system, a 3.2 MP rear-facing camera and a 1.3 MP front-facing camera for video calls. It runs the Android 2.2 (Froyo) operating system, and supports telephone functionality as speaker phone, via provided wired ear piece or Bluetooth earpieces (except models sold in the US). It can download videoconferencing apps such as Tango as alternative to telephone functionality.

The tablet is enclosed in a plastic frame that makes it lighter than other metal-bodied tablets, weighing 380 g (0.84 lb).

The GT-P1000 model carries a 7" Super TFT instead of the AMOLED which is used by Samsung in its Galaxy S phones. The screen has a 1024×600 resolution With mDNIE (Mobile Digital Natural Images Engine). Internal flash storage of 2 GB (North America CDMA models), 16 GB or 32 GB can be supplemented with a microSD flash card with up to 32 GB. CPU is a Exynos 3110 Applications Processor (Also known as Hummingbird) features 1.0 GHz ARM architecture Cortex A8 application and has 512 MB of RAM paired with a PowerVR SGX540 graphics processor.

The WIFI only model has a different graphics chip that doesn't support TV out and Samsung has not provided (or promised to provide) an update to gingerbread.

The tablet has two cameras: a 3.2 rear MP camera with a LED flash and a 1.3 MP front camera for video calling (the Verizon model has a 3 megapixel rear camera). The front camera has auto focus capability. The camera also has auto image stitching, combining 8 pictures. Modes include single shot, continuous, panorama, and self-shot. It can automatically trigger on detecting that the subject smiles. Autogeotagging uses the internal GPS receiver.

The tablet has GPS, 802.11n Wi-Fi, Bluetooth 3.0, and handsfree/bluetooth/headphone telephony. Cellular protocols include GSM CDMA, HSPA (HSUPA).[citation needed]

It also has a 30-pin docking and charging connector very similar to the standard PDMI connector (a non-proprietary alternative to Apple's docking connector). It appears so similar to the PDMI connector that it is widely mistaken for it, but it is non-standard and all accessories, including charging cables, are incompatible with other equipment and only available from Samsung.[citation needed]

Samsung say that its 4000 mAh battery will give it 7 hours of video playback or 10 hours of talk time.

The GSM variants of the Galaxy Tab have an externally-accessible SIM card slot. If the SIM card is removed while the system is on, the system automatically reboots. The AT&T and T-Mobile variants of the Galaxy Tab ship with a micro SIM in a micro SIM adapter. For non-US Galaxy Tabs, with phone function, this slot can also accommodate a 3G data-only SIM card if the user does not need telephone functionality.

The Samsung Galaxy Tab also has an optional RCA plug connector through which the screen image is shown on a TV or other display (the Tab's own screen cannot be turned off; it can be dimmed with a backlight dimming app).


This tablet comes with a version of the Android 2.2 operating system with some custom skins and applications. Most Android 2.2 apps developed using Google's guidelines for Android should scale properly when displayed on larger-screen devices such as the Samsung Galaxy Tab, according to Samsung. Adobe Flash 10.1, DivX, MPEG-4, WMV and Xvid, H.263, H.264 support has also been announced. The Tab uses Atmel's maXTouch multi touch capacitive touchscreen, and supports multi-tasking.

The Tab supports calendar, email and instant messaging applications. It has a launcher for e-reading applications which starts PressDisplay when reading newspapers, Kobo when reading e-books, and Zinio when reading magazines. For viewing and editing Microsoft Office documents, the Galaxy Tab also comes bundled with the Android version of ThinkFree Office Mobile.

The Tab can also provide tethering, acting as a Wi-Fi hotspot for up to 5 devices. Stored addresses can be displayed in Google maps with one click. It also allows linkage with a contact's Facebook profile if the phone address is linked with the contact's Facebook address.

Several HD video content multimedia formats, including DivX, XviD, MPEG4, H.263, H.264, are supported. It can play video content either stored on the device itself or streamed from YouTube, and can output 720p video to a TV either as composite video or via HDMI when using the optional dock.

Text can be entered using Swype, by tracing a path over letters on a virtual keyboard, and standard XT9 predictive typing is also supported.

TouchWiz Samsung Galaxy Tabs allow the screen display to be saved. Honeycomb tablets without TouchWiz, including the 10.1 in Galaxy Tab, must either be rooted or have the SDK installed in order to capture screenshots

Absolute Glaucoma(Disease)

Absolute glaucoma is the end stage of all types of glaucoma. The eye has no vision, absence of pupillary light reflex and pupillary response, and has a stony appearance. Severe pain is present in the eye. The treatment of absolute glaucoma is a destructive procedure like cyclocryoapplication, cyclophotocoagulation, or injection of 100% alcohol.

What's Secondary Glaucoma?

Secondary glaucoma

Inflammatory glaucoma
Uveitis of all types
Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis
Phacogenic glaucoma
Angle-closure glaucoma with mature cataract
Phacoanaphylactic glaucoma secondary to rupture of lens capsule
Phacolytic glaucoma due to phacotoxic meshwork blockage
Subluxation of lens
Glaucoma secondary to intraocular hemorrhage
Hyphema
Hemolytic glaucoma, also known as erythroclastic glaucoma
Traumatic glaucoma
Angle recession glaucoma: Traumatic recession on anterior chamber angle
Postsurgical glaucoma
Aphakic pupillary block
Ciliary block glaucoma
Neovascular glaucoma (see below for more details)
Drug-induced glaucoma
Corticosteroid induced glaucoma
Alpha-chymotrypsin glaucoma. Postoperative ocular hypertension from use of alpha chymotrypsin.
Glaucoma of miscellaneous origin
Associated with intraocular tumors
Associated with retinal detachments
Secondary to severe chemical burns of the eye
Associated with essential iris atrophy
Toxic glaucoma.

Neovascular glaucoma, an uncommon type of glaucoma, is difficult or nearly impossible to treat, and is often caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). It may also be triggered by other conditions that result in ischemia of the retina or ciliary body. Individuals with poor blood flow to the eye are highly at risk for this condition.

Neovascular glaucoma results when new, abnormal vessels begin developing in the angle of the eye that begin blocking the drainage. Patients with such condition begin to rapidly lose their eyesight. Sometimes, the disease appears very rapidly, especially after cataract surgery procedures. A new treatment for this disease, as first reported by Kahook and colleagues, involves use of a novel group of medications known as anti-VEGF agents. These injectable medications can lead to a dramatic decrease in new vessel formation and, if injected early enough in the disease process, may lead to normalization of intraocular pressure.

Toxic glaucoma is open angle glaucoma with an unexplained significant rise of intraocular pressure following unknown pathogenesis. Intraocular pressure can sometimes reach 80 mmHg (11 kPa). It characteristically manifests as ciliary body inflammation and massive trabecular oedema that sometimes extends to Schlemm's canal. This condition is differentiated from malignant glaucoma by the presence of a deep and clear anterior chamber and a lack of aqueous misdirection. Also, the corneal appearance is not as hazy. A reduction in visual acuity can occur followed neuroretinal breakdown.

Associated factors include inflammation, drugs, trauma and intraocular surgery, including cataract surgery and vitrectomy procedures. Gede Pardianto (2005) reported on four patients who had toxic glaucoma. One of them underwent phaecoemulsification with small particle nucleus drops. Some cases can be resolved with some medication, vitrectomy procedures or trabeculectomy. Valving procedures can give some relief, but further research is required.

Glaucoma(Disease)

Glaucoma is an eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently damaging vision in the affected eye(s) and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye (aqueous humour). The term 'ocular hypertension' is used for cases having constantly raised intraocular pressure (IOP) without any associated optic nerve damage. Conversely, the term 'normal' or 'low tension glaucoma' is suggested for the typical visual field defects when associated with a normal or low IOP.

The nerve damage involves loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern. There are many different subtypes of glaucoma, but they can all be considered a type of optic neuropathy. Raised intraocular pressure is a significant risk factor for developing glaucoma (above 21 mmHg or 2.8 kPa). One person may develop nerve damage at a relatively low pressure, while another person may have high eye pressure for years and yet never develop damage. Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which can progress to blindness.

Glaucoma can be divided roughly into two main categories, "open angle" and "closed angle" glaucoma. Closed angle glaucoma can appear suddenly and is often painful; visual loss can progress quickly, but the discomfort often leads patients to seek medical attention before permanent damage occurs. Open angle, chronic glaucoma tends to progress at a slower rate and patients may not notice they have lost vision until the disease has progressed significantly.

Glaucoma has been nicknamed the "silent thief of sight" because the loss of vision normally occurs gradually over a long period of time, and is often recognized only when the disease is quite advanced. Once lost, this damaged visual field cannot be recovered. Worldwide, it is the second leading cause of blindness after cataracts. It is also the leading cause of blindness among African Americans. Glaucoma affects one in 200 people aged fifty and younger, and one in 10 over the age of eighty. If the condition is detected early enough, it is possible to arrest the development or slow the progression with medical and surgical means.

The word "glaucoma" comes from the Greek γλαύκωμα, "opacity of the crystalline lens". (Cataracts and glaucoma were not distinguished until c.1705)

Signs and Symtoms:

There are two main types of glaucoma: open-angle glaucoma and closed-angle glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma accounts for 90% of glaucoma cases in the United States. It is painless and does not have acute attacks. The only signs are gradually progressive visual field loss, and optic nerve changes (increased cup-to-disc ratio on fundoscopic examination).


Photo showing conjunctival vessels dilated at the corneal edge (ciliary flush, circumcorneal flush) and hazy cornea characteristic of acute angle closure glaucomaClosed-angle glaucoma accounts for less than 10% of glaucoma cases in the United States, but as many as half of glaucoma cases in other nations (particularly Asian countries). About 10% of patients with closed angles present with acute angle closure crises characterized by sudden ocular pain, seeing halos around lights, red eye, very high intraocular pressure (>30 mmHg), nausea and vomiting, sudden decreased vision, and a fixed, mid-dilated pupil. Acute angle closure is an ocular emergency

More About Glaucoma:

There are several causes for glaucoma. Ocular hypertension (increased pressure within the eye) is the largest risk factor in most glaucomas, but in some populations, only 50% of people with primary open angle glaucoma actually have elevated ocular pressure.

There is no clear evidence that vitamin deficiencies cause glaucoma in humans. It follows, then, that oral vitamin supplementation is not a recommended treatment for glaucoma. Caffeine increases intraocular pressure in those with glaucoma but does not appear to affect normal individuals.

Many East Asian groups are prone to developing angle closure glaucoma due to their shallower anterior chamber depth, with the majority of cases of glaucoma in this population consisting of some form of angle closure.Inuit also have a 20 to 40 times higher risk than Caucasians of developing primary angle closure glaucoma. Women are three times more likely than men to develop acute angle closure glaucoma due to their shallower anterior chambers. Those of African descent are three times more likely to develop primary open angle glaucoma.


Various rare congenital/genetic eye malformations are associated with glaucoma. Occasionally, failure of the normal third trimester gestational atrophy of the hyaloid canal and the tunica vasculosa lentis is associated with other anomalies. Angle closure induced ocular hypertension and glaucomatous optic neuropathy may also occur with these anomalies. and modelled in mice. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) has been found to be associated with mutations in genes at several loci. Normal tension glaucoma, which comprises one third of POAG, is associated with genetic mutations. People with a family history of glaucoma have about six percent chance of developing glaucoma.

What's A Disease?

A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism. It is often construed to be a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by external factors, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases. In humans, "disease" is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, and/or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms, deviant behaviors, and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories. Diseases usually affect people not only physically, but also emotionally, as contracting and living with many diseases can alter one's perspective on life, and their personality.

Death due to disease is called death by natural causes. There are four main types of disease: pathogenic disease, deficiency disease, hereditary disease, and physiological disease.

Diseases can also be classified as communicable and non-communicable disease.

The term disease broadly refers to any condition that impairs normal function. Commonly, this term is used to refer specifically to infectious diseases, which are clinically evident diseases that result from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular organisms, and aberrant proteins known as prions. An infection that does not and will not produce clinically evident impairment of normal functioning, such as the presence of the normal bacteria and yeasts in the gut, is not considered a disease; by contrast, an infection that is asymptomatic during its incubation period, but expected to produce symptoms later, is usually considered a disease. Non-infectious diseases are all other diseases, including most forms of cancer, heart disease, and genetic disease.

Eastern Hare-Wallaby(Extinct Animal)



The eastern Hare wallaby was a small macropod, slightly larger and more slender than its surviving relative the Rufous Hare Wallaby. It had a body length of about 50 centimeters and a 33 centimeter long tail. Its fur color varied from black through brown to yellow with a grayish-white belly.

This species once inhabited the interior of New South Wales, Victoria and the Murray River region of South Australia. It was common in the level country between the Murray and Darling rivers, as well as the Liverpool Plains. Its preferred habitat consided of open plains and grasslands.

Very little is known about this wallaby today. It was a strictly nocturnal animal which led a solitary lifestyle. During the day it sat still in a well-formed 'seat', usually in the shelter of a saltbush or a tussock. If approached too closely, it would bound off at great speed. One wallaby was chased by dogs for 500 metres and suddenly doubled back and came back within 6 metres of John Gould and leapt over his head; it could jump 1.8 metres high.

The last known specimen of this species was a female collected in August 1889 in New South Wales. There were no further sightings of this species, even though researchers well into the 1930s were still uncertain of its extinction.

The cause of its extinction remains uncertain, as it died out before intensive agriculture was introduced throughout its distribution and before the red fox became common in its habitat. Several causes of its extinction have been suggested, including trampling of its grassland habitat by cattle and sheep, changed burning regimes, or predation by introduced.

List Of Extinct Mammals(Nature)

Broad-faced Potoroo (1875, Australia)
Eastern Hare Wallaby (1890, Australia)
Lake Mackay Hare-wallaby (1932, Australia)
Desert Rat-kangaroo (1935, Australia)
Thylacine (1936, Tasmania, Australia)
Toolache Wallaby (1943, Australia)
Desert Bandicoot (1943, Australia)
Lesser Bilby (1950s, Australia)
Pig-footed Bandicoot (1950s, Australia)
Crescent Nailtail Wallaby (1956, Australia)
Red-bellied Gracile Opossum (1962, Argentina)


Extinct Rodents:

Oriente Cave Rat ( Cuba)
Torre's Cave Rat ( Cuba)
Imposter Hutia ( Hispaniola)
Montane Hutia ( Hispaniola)
Lagostomus crassus ( Peru)
Megaoryzomys curioi ( Galápagos Islands)
Flores Cave Rat (1500, Indonesia)
Verhoeven's Giant Tree Rat (1500, Indonesia)
Cuban Coney (1500, Cuba)
Hispaniolan Edible Rat (~1546, Hispaniola)
Puerto Rican Hutia (?, Puerto Rico)
Big-eared Hopping Mouse (1843, Australia)
Darling Downs Hopping Mouse (1846, Australia)
White-footed Rabbit-rat (1870s, Australia)
St Lucy Giant Rice Rat (1881), Saint Lucia)
Short-tailed Hopping Mouse (1896, Australia)
Nelson's Rice Rat (1897, Islas Marias)
Guadalcanal Rat (1899, Solomon Islands)
Long-Tailed Hopping Mouse (1901, Australia)
Martinique Giant Rice Rat (1902), Martinique)
Bulldog Rat (1903, Christmas Island)
Maclear's Rat (1903, Christmas Island)
Martinique muskrat (1903, Martinique)
Darwin's Galapagos Mouse (1930, Galapagos Islands)
Gould's Mouse (1930, Australia)
Pemberton's Deer Mouse (1931), San Pedro Island
Lesser Stick Nest Rat (1933, Australia)
Indefatigable Galapagos Mouse (1934, Galapagos Islands)
Chadwick Beach Cotton Mouse (1938, Florida)
Ilin Island Cloudrunner (1953) Ilin Island)
Little Swan Island hutia (1955, Swan Islands)
Blue-Gray Mouse (1956) Australia)
Pallid Beach Mouse (1959, Florida)
Emperor Rat (1960s, Solomon Islands)

Save Tigers

Already we have lost many specie of animals in last century. The animals are killed for commercial use,and for their skins.

In India in year1937 India had about 7000 tigers and now we have only 1411 tigers (estimated). Our national animal is extincting from our own country.Is there any one to save them. Can our next generation will be able to see tigers as we didn’t see many animals because no body was their to save them.
Can’t we take any precautionary measures against it. I know government has taken many measures to protect it but still it if not enough to protect them.

We can do many things to save them please support us. In India many tigers reserves are there but still their extincting, we can provide more security to protect them, breeding of tigers all over the world , saving as many tigers as possible as from their illness by hiring vet.doctors, protecting their natural habitat as forest, etc. In some cases even government is responsible for the extinct of tigers in security purpose of tigers. Not only tigers are in endangered level of extinction but as well as lions of Africa and India, Blue whales in pacific ocean and sharks. Surely these fishes are killed to make cosmetic products from their skin and liver only for these thing they are killed. If one rich person dies all even after death he is there in news , television, etc. But if a animal dies we tell “we don’t care of animals they are the trouble on earth” is it good to say that. Even this generation does not have emotions against animals. If a animal kill’s a man you kill the animal back for protecting the man. eg : in Australia’s beach in 1980′s they killed many sharks when we asked why cause they started coming on the beach and tried to kill human . so they killed they sharks. so even if a human enters the region of animals and kills them illegally what we do? Nothing sit at home on a relaxing sofa holding a tea in hand and in other hand news paper and read and later forget it…. but if a animal kill’s a human when they go to office or any official they spread this animal is very bad it killed a human.

Think before telling anything.. How much important is each and every animal in ecosystem.human have brain to think but that poor, helpless animals what else they can do than dieing or escaping for this human world. we say animals come into the villages or cities.why do they come? Actually they don’t come we go in theirs area.

Source: www.news.icbse.com

Spread the message on the Social Networking Sites. Tweet Using #savetigers on twitter.
Like Save Our Tigers Page on The Facebook

Why Should We Save Tigers

Saving the tiger means saving mankind..

Not only is tiger a beautiful animal but it is also the indicator of the forest's health. Saving the tiger means we save the forest since tiger cannot live in places where trees have vanished and in turn secure food and water for all.

If we make sure tigers live, we have to make sure that deer, antelope and all other animals that the tiger eats (its prey base) live. To make sure that these herbivores live, we must make sure that all the trees, grass and other plants that these prey animals need for food are protected. In this way, the whole forest gets saved! Saving the tiger means saving its entire forest kingdom with all the other animals in it.

Also forests catch and help store rainwater and protect soils. In this way we protect our rivers and recharge groundwater sources. Areas with less trees lead to floods, killing people and destroying homes. It takes away the precious soil, leaving behind a wasteland. The soil jams up our lakes and dams, reducing their ability to store water. By destroying the tiger's home, we not only harm tigers, but also ourselves.

The tiger thus becomes the symbol for the protection of all species on our earth since it is at the top of the foodchain. This is why we sometimes call the tiger, an apex predator, an indicator of our ecosystem's health

Source: www.projecttiger.com

Thursday, December 15, 2011

Justin Bieber:Rise To Stardom




Justin Drew Bieber ( /ˈbiːbər/ bee-bər, born March 1, 1994) is a Canadian pop/R&B singer, songwriter and actor. Bieber was discovered in 2008 by Scooter Braun, who came across Bieber's videos on YouTube and later became his manager. Braun arranged for him to meet with Usher in Atlanta, Georgia, and Bieber was soon signed to Raymond Braun Media Group (RBMG), a joint venture between Braun and Usher, and then to a recording contract with Island Records offered by L.A. Reid.

Bieber's debut single, "One Time", was released in 2009 and peaked in the top ten in Canada and charted in the top thirty in several international markets. His debut album, My World, followed in November 2009, and was later certified platinum in the United States. He became the first artist to have seven songs from a debut album chart on the Billboard Hot 100. Bieber's first full studio release, My World 2.0, was released in March 2010 and debuted at number one and within the top ten of several countries, and was certified platinum in the United States. It was preceded by the worldwide top-ten single, "Baby". The music video of "Baby" is currently ranked as the most viewed and most discussed YouTube video. Bieber followed-up the release of his debut album with his first headlining tour, the My World Tour, the remix albums My Worlds Acoustic and Never Say Never – The Remixes, and the 3D biopic-concert film Justin Bieber: Never Say Never – which had an opening weekend gross that nearly matched the record for the biggest opening weekend for a concert-film. Bieber released his second studio album, Under the Mistletoe in November 2011, which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200.

Bieber has been nominated and awarded numerous accolades, winning Artist of the Year at the 2010 American Music Awards, and being nominated for Best New Artist and Best Pop Vocal Album at the 53rd Grammy Awards. Bieber is considered a teen idol.





Bieber was born on March 1, 1994, in London, Ontario, and was raised in Stratford, Ontario. Bieber's mother, Patricia Lynn "Pattie" Mallette, was 18 years old when she became pregnant with her son. Mallette, originally from Stratford, raised her son with the help of her parents, Bruce and Diane. Mallette worked a series of low-paying office jobs, raising Bieber as a single mother in low-income housing. Bieber has maintained contact with his father, Jeremy Jack Bieber, who married another woman and had two children. Bieber's paternal great-grandfather was a German immigrant to Canada. His mother's ancestry is French Canadian. Bieber attended French immersion school at Stratford school Jean Sauve.

During his childhood, Bieber was interested in hockey, soccer, and chess; he often kept his musical aspirations to himself. As he grew up, Bieber taught himself to play the piano, drums, guitar, and trumpet. In early 2007, when he was twelve, Bieber sang Ne-Yo's "So Sick" for a local singing competition in Stratford and placed second. Mallette posted a video of the performance on YouTube for their family and friends to see. She continued to upload videos of Bieber singing covers of various R&B songs, and Bieber's popularity on the site grew. Chris Hicks, Bieber's A&R at Island/Def Jam, explained the young artist's huge online following to HitQuarters by saying:

"He was doing something different. He was an attractive white kid singing very soulful R&B hits. That set him apart immediately from anyone in his range because no one was covering or singing these kind of records. But equally important was that you believed in these songs - it was real. And you wanted to hear more."

While searching for videos of a different singer, Scooter Braun, a former marketing executive of So So Def, clicked on one of Bieber's 2007 videos by accident. Impressed, Braun tracked down the theater Bieber was performing in, located Bieber's school, and finally contacted Mallette. Mallette was reluctant because of Braun's Jewish religion; she remembered praying, "God, I gave him to you. You could send me a Christian man, a Christian label! ... you don’t want this Jewish kid to be Justin’s man, do you?" However, after praying with her church elders and receiving their encouragement, she permitted Braun to fly Bieber, then 13, to Atlanta, Georgia, to record demo tapes. A week after arriving, Bieber sang for R&B singer/songwriter Usher. Bieber was soon signed to Raymond Braun Media Group (RBMG), a joint venture between Braun and Usher. Justin Timberlake was also reportedly in the running to sign Bieber, but lost the bidding war to Usher. Usher then sought assistance in finding a label home for the artist from then manager Chris Hicks, who helped engineer an audition with his contact Antonio L.A. Reid of Island Def Jam Music Group. Reid signed Bieber to Island Records in October 2008 (resulting in a joint venture between RBMG and Island Records) and appointed Hicks as executive Vice-President of Def Jam where he would be able manage Bieber's career at the label. At that point, Bieber and his mother moved to Atlanta temporarily, also the home of Usher and Braun, to record and get counseling from Braun. Braun became Bieber's manager.





Bieber in September 2009 at the Nintendo World StoreBieber's first single, "One Time", was released to radio while Bieber was still recording his debut album. The song reached number 12 on the Canadian Hot 100 during its first week of release in July 2009, and later peaked at number 17 on the Billboard Hot 100. During fall 2009 it had success in international markets. The song was certified Platinum in Canada and the US and Gold in Australia and New Zealand. Bieber's first release, an extended play entitled My World, was released on November 17, 2009. The album's second single, "One Less Lonely Girl", and two promo singles, "Love Me", and "Favorite Girl", were released exclusively on the iTunes store and charted within the top forty of the Billboard Hot 100. "One Less Lonely Girl" was later also released to radio and peaked within the top fifteen in Canada and the US, being certified Gold in the latter. My World was eventually certified Platinum in the US and Double Platinum in both Canada and the UK. To promote the album, Bieber performed on several live shows such as mtvU's VMA 09 Tour, European program The Dome, YTV's The Next Star, The Today Show, The Wendy Williams Show, Lopez Tonight, The Ellen DeGeneres Show, It's On with Alexa Chung, Good Morning America, Chelsea Lately, and BET's 106 & Park with Rihanna. Bieber also guest starred in an episode of True Jackson, VP in late 2009.

Bieber performed Stevie Wonder's "Someday at Christmas" for U.S. President Barack Obama and first lady Michelle Obama at the White House for Christmas in Washington, which was broadcast on December 20, 2009, on U.S. television broadcaster TNT. Bieber was also one of the performers at Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve with Ryan Seacrest on December 31, 2009. Bieber was a presenter at the 52nd Grammy Awards on January 31, 2010. He was invited to be a vocalist for the remake of We Are The World (a song writen by Michael Jackson & Lionel Richie) for its 25th anniversary to benefit Haiti after the earthquake. Bieber sings the opening line, which was sung by Lionel Richie in the original version. On March 12, 2010, a version of K'naan's "Wavin' Flag" recorded by a collective of Canadian musicians known as Young Artists for Haiti was released. Bieber is featured in the song, performing the closing lines.

"Baby", the lead single from his debut album, My World 2.0, which features Ludacris, was released in January 2010 and became his biggest hit thus far, charting at number five in the U.S. and reaching the top ten in seven other countries. Two promo singles "Never Let You Go", and "U Smile" were top thirty hits on the U.S. Hot 100, and top twenty hits in Canada. According to review aggregator Metacritic, the album has received "generally favorable reviews". It debuted at number one on the U.S. Billboard 200, making Bieber the youngest solo male act to top the chart since Stevie Wonder in 1963. My World 2.0 also debuted at number one on the Canadian Albums Chart, Irish Albums Chart, and Australian Albums Chart, and the New Zealand Albums Chart and reached the top ten of fifteen other countries. To promote the album, Bieber appeared on several live programs including The View, the 2010 Kids Choice Awards, Nightline, The Late Show with David Letterman, The Dome and 106 and Park.Bieber collaborated with Sean Kingston on his single "Eenie Meenie" which also appeared on Bieber's debut album. The song reached the top ten in the United Kingdom and Australia, and the top-twenty of most other markets.


Bieber performing at the Conseco Fieldhouse, in August 2010On April 10, 2010, Bieber was the musical guest on Saturday Night Live. On July 4, 2010, Bieber performed at the Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Spectacular in New York City. The second single from My World 2.0, "Somebody to Love", was released in April 2010, and a remix was released featuring Bieber's mentor Usher. The single reached number ten in Canada, number fifteen in the United States, and the top twenty in multiple international countries.

On June 23, 2010, Bieber went on his first official headlining tour, the My World Tour, starting in Hartford, Connecticut, to promote My World and My World 2.0. In July 2010, it was reported that Bieber was the most searched for celebrity on the Internet. That same month his music video, "Baby", surpassed Lady Gaga's "Bad Romance" to become the most viewed, and most disliked YouTube video ever. In September 2010, it was reported that Bieber accounted for three percent of all traffic on Twitter, according to an employee of the social-networking site.




Bieber began recording his second album in July 2010 in New York City. At this point, because of puberty, his voice was deeper than it was when he recorded his first album. In April 2010, the singer discussing his vocals remarked, "It cracks. Like every teenage boy, I'm dealing with it and I have the best vocal coach in the world. [...] Some of the notes I hit on "Baby" I can't hit anymore. We have to lower the key when I sing live." British singer/songwriter Taio Cruz confirmed in July 2010 that he is writing songs for Bieber's next album. Hip hop producer Dr. Dre produced two songs with Bieber in July 2010 but it is unknown if they were made for the album, which is currently due for a 2011 release.


Bieber performing in Jakarta during his My World Tour.Bieber guest-starred in the season premiere of the CBS crime drama CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, aired on September 23, 2010. He played a "troubled teen who is faced with a difficult decision regarding his only brother". Bieber was also in a subsequent episode which aired on February 17, 2011, in which his character is killed. Bieber performed a medley of "U Smile", "Baby", and "Somebody to Love" and briefly played the drums at the 2010 MTV Video Music Awards on September 12, 2010. Bieber announced in October 2010 that he would release an acoustic album, called My Worlds Acoustic. It was released on Black Friday in the United States and featured acoustic versions of songs from his previous albums, and accompanied the release of a completely new song titled "Pray".
In late 2011, Bieber began recording his third studio album, entitled Believe. On February 22, 2012, Bieber announced via Twitter that the first single off Believe would be released in March 2012.The following week, Bieber appeared on The Ellen DeGeneres Show to announce that the first single would be called "Boyfriend" and would be released on March 26, 2012. The song was co-written by Mike Posner. The song debuted at number two on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 chart, selling a total of 521,000 digital units, the second-highest-ever debut digital sales week. Bill Werde of Billboard noted that it failed to debut at number one because the digital download of the track was available only through iTunes Store, "restricting the buying option for those that do not frequent the Apple retail store." "Boyfriend" became Bieber's first single ever to reach the top position on the Canadian Hot 100 by debuting at number one and staying on for one week. His third studio album, Believe was released on June 19, 2012, by Island Records. The album marks a musical departure from the teen pop sound of his previous releases, and incorporates elements of dance-pop and R&B genres. Intent on developing a more mature sound, Bieber collaborated with a wide range of urban producers for the release as well as some long-time collaborators, including Darkchild, Hit-Boy, Diplo and Max Martin. Entertainment Weekly praised Bieber's evolution, calling the album both a "reinvention and a reintroduction." Rolling Stone noted the deeper voice and more intense beats found on the album, although it lampooned one of his euphemisms for newfound sexual maturity. Believe debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, becoming his fourth number-one album. The album sold 57,000 copies in its first week in Canada, debuting atop the Canadian Albums Chart. The Believe Tour, which further promoted the album, began in September 2012 in Glendale, Arizona. On December 14, 2012, Bieber appeared on The Ellen DeGeneres Show, where he announced plans to release an acoustic album titled Believe Acoustic, which is scheduled for release on January 29, 2013. He has stated on Twitter that he will host and perform as the musical guest on Saturday Night Live sometime in 2013.

Micro Chip(Computers)

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as IC, chip, or microchip) is an electronic circuit manufactured by the patterned diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material. Additional materials are deposited and patterned to form interconnections between semiconductor devices.

Integrated circuits are used in virtually all electronic equipment today and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the low cost of production of integrated circuits


ICs were made possible by experimental discoveries showing that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum tubes and by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components. The integrated circuit's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors.

There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography rather than being constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, much less material is used to construct a packaged IC die than to construct a discrete circuit. Performance is high because the components switch quickly and consume little power (compared to their discrete counterparts) as a result of the small size and close proximity of the components. As of 2006, typical chip areas range from a few square millimeters to around 350 mm2, with up to 1 million transistors per mm2.

Integrated circuit originally referred to a miniaturized electronic circuit consisting of semiconductor devices, as well as passive components bonded to a substrate or circuit board.This configuration is now commonly referred to as a hybrid integrated circuit. Integrated circuit has since come to refer to the single-piece circuit construction originally known as a monolithic integrated circuit.

Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when the German engineer Werner Jacobi (Siemens AG) filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device showing five transistors on a common substrate arranged in a 2-stage amplifier arrangement. Jacobi disclosed small and cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent. A commercial use of his patent has not been reported.

The idea of the integrated circuit was conceived by a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence, Geoffrey W.A. Dummer (1909–2002). Dummer presented the idea to the public at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D.C. on May 7, 1952.[4] He gave many symposia publicly to propagate his ideas, and unsuccessfully attempted to build such a circuit in 1956.

A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares (wafers), each one containing a single miniaturized component. Components could then be integrated and wired into a bidimensional or tridimensional compact grid. This idea, which looked very promising in 1957, was proposed to the US Army by Jack Kilby, and led to the short-lived Micromodule Program (similar to 1951's Project Tinkertoy). However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC.

Robert Noyce credited Kurt Lehovec of Sprague Electric for the principle of p-n junction isolation caused by the action of a biased p-n junction (the diode) as a key concept behind the IC.


Jack Kilby's original integrated circuitNewly employed by Texas Instruments, Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958, successfully demonstrating the first working integrated example on September 12, 1958. In his patent application of February 6, 1959, Kilby described his new device as “a body of semiconductor material ... wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are completely integrated.”[8] Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part of the invention of the integrated circuit. Kilby's work was named an IEEE Milestone in 2009.

Noyce also came up with his own idea of an integrated circuit half a year later than Kilby. His chip solved many practical problems that Kilby's had not. Produced at Fairchild Semiconductor, it was made of silicon, whereas Kilby's chip was made of germanium.

Fairchild Semiconductor was also home of the first silicon gate IC technology with self-aligned gates, which stands as the basis of all modern CMOS computer chips. The technology was developed by Italian physicist Federico Faggin in 1968, who later joined Intel in order to develop the very first Central Processing Unit (CPU) on one chip (Intel 4004), for which he received the National Medal of Technology and Innovation in 2010.

Rare Tigers Dead(Save Tigers)


Two Siberian tiger cubs have been found dead in a refrigerator at a Chinese zoo less than a week after another incident involving the endangered species.
They were found in a ticketing office at a wildlife park in China's central Hubei province.

Tiger body parts are treasured as medicines in China.

On Thursday a female Siberian tiger was found dead in the same area. Thieves had broken into its cage, tranquillised the animal, then butchered it.
That tiger's remains were found by zoo keepers.

It had been beheaded and skinned, and its legs had been removed.

Only an estimated 400 Siberian tigers still remain in the wild.

Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk

Tiger Cub Found Dead(Save Tigers)




Dehra Dun, Dec 15 (PTI) In second such incident in less than a week, a tiger cub was found dead at Dhela range of the Jim Corbett national park, forest officials said today. The carcass of the female cub was found yesterday by a patrolling team of forest guards. Postmortem of the one-month-old cub is being conducted. Preliminary investigations have revealed that the death might have been caused due to excessive cold conditions in the area, officials said. This is the third tiger cub which has been found dead in Uttarakhand within a span of two days. On December 13, two cubs were found dead at Kilpuri range of Terai east forest division in the district. Meanwhile, honorary wildlife warden of Uttarakhand Bijendra Singh has asked the state government to take proper care of the elusive tigers in the state.

Source:www.moneycontrol.com

Dead Sea(Nature)

The Dead Sea (Arabic: البحر الميت‎ al-Baḥr al-Mayyit (help·info), Hebrew: יָם הַ‏‏מֶּ‏‏לַ‏ח‎‎, Yām HamMélaḥ, "Sea of Salt", also Hebrew: יָם הַ‏‏מָּוֶת‎‎, Yām HamMā́weṯ, "The Sea of Death"), also called the Salt Sea, is a salt lake bordering Jordan to the east and Israel and the West Bank to the west. Its surface and shores are 423 metres (1,388 ft) below sea level, the lowest elevation on the Earth's surface. The Dead Sea is 377 m (1,237 ft) deep, the deepest hypersaline lake in the world. With 33.7% salinity, it is also one of the world's saltiest bodies of water, though Lake Assal (Djibouti), Garabogazköl and some hypersaline lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica (such as Don Juan Pond) have reported higher salinities. It is 8.6 times saltier than the ocean. This salinity makes for a harsh environment in which animals cannot flourish, hence its name. The Dead Sea is 67 kilometres (42 mi) long and 18 kilometres (11 mi) wide at its widest point. It lies in the Jordan Rift Valley, and its main tributary is the Jordan River.

The Dead Sea has attracted visitors from around the Mediterranean basin for thousands of years. Biblically, it was a place of refuge for King David. It was one of the world's first health resorts (for Herod the Great), and it has been the supplier of a wide variety of products, from balms for Egyptian mummification to potash for fertilizers. People also use the salt and the minerals from the Dead Sea to create cosmetics and herbal sachets. In 2009, 1.2 million foreign tourists visited on the Israeli side.

The sea has a density of 1.24 kg/L, which makes swimming similar to floating.

In Hebrew, the Dead Sea is Yām ha-Melaḥ (help·info), meaning "sea of salt" (Genesis 14:3). In prose sometimes the term Yām ha-Māvet (ים המוות, "sea of death") is used, due to the scarcity of aquatic life there. In Arabic the Dead Sea is called al-Bahr al-Mayyit (help·info) ("the Dead Sea"), or less commonly baḥrᵘ lūṭᵃ (بحر لوط, "the Sea of Lot"). Another historic name in Arabic was the "Sea of Zoʼar", after a nearby town in biblical times. The Greeks called it Lake Asphaltites (Attic Greek ἡ Θάλαττα ἀσφαλτῖτης, hē Thálatta asphaltĩtēs, "the Asphaltite sea"). The Bible also refers to it as Yām ha-Mizraḥî (ים המזרחי, "the Eastern sea") and Yām ha-‘Ărāvâ (ים הערבה, "Sea of the Arabah").

Wednesday, December 14, 2011

Mohenjo-Daro(History)

Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ]) is an archeological site situated in what is now the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2600 BC, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BC, and was not rediscovered until 1922. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.

Mohenjo-daro was built in the 26th century BC, and abandoned around 1800 BC. The ruins of the city were discovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, major excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.

The last major series of excavations were conducted in 1964 and 1965 by Dr. George F. Dales. After this date, excavations were banned due to weathering damage to the exposed structures, and the only projects allowed at the site since have been salvage excavations, surface surveys and conservation projects. However, in the 1980s, German and Italian survey groups led by Dr. Michael Jansen and Dr. Maurizio Tosi used less invasive archeological techniques, such as architectural documentation, surface surveys and localized probing, to determine further clues about the Indus Valley Civilization.


Mohenjo-daro is located in the Larkana District of Sindh, Pakistan, on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley, around 28 kilometres (17 mi) from the town of Larkana. The ridge was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization, allowing the city to stand above the surrounding plain, but the flooding of the river has since buried most of the ridge in deposited silt. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the riverbed of the Ghaggar-Hakra on the western side is now dry.

Mohenjo-daro was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, which is also known as the Harappan Civilization after Harappa, another important IVC site, located to the north of Mohenjo-daro in Punjab, Pakistan.

The prehistoric Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BC. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BC. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal.

At its height, Mohenjo-daro was the most developed and advanced city in South Asia, displaying remarkably sophisticated engineering and urban planning for its time

Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street grid of rectilinear buildings. Most were built of fired and mortared brick; some incorporated sun-dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests a high level of social organization. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-daro could have housed around 35,000 residents. The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have public baths, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens, and two large assembly halls.

The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (known as a hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most houses had inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings had two stories.

In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler identified one large building in Mohenjo-daro as a "Great Granary". Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer noted the complete lack of evidence for grain at the "granary", which, he argued, might therefore be better termed a "Great Hall" of uncertain function.

Close to the "Great Granary" is a large and elaborate public bath, sometimes called the Great Bath. From a colonnaded courtyard, steps lead down to the brick-built pool, which was waterproofed by a lining of bitumen. The pool measures 12m long, 7m wide and 2.4m deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind, and the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms, thought to have been a priestly residence.

Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls, but was otherwise well fortified, with guard towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, it is postulated that Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, but the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear.

Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.

What's Symbian?(operating system)

Symbian is a mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones and currently maintained by Accenture. The Symbian platform is the successor to Symbian OS and Nokia Series 60; unlike Symbian OS, which needed an additional user interface system, Symbian includes a user interface component based on S60 5th Edition. The latest version, Symbian^3, was officially released in Q4 2010, first used in the Nokia N8. In May 2011 an update, Symbian Anna, was officially announced, followed by Symbian Belle in August 2011.

Symbian OS was originally developed by Symbian Ltd. It is a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors, although an unreleased x86 port existed.

Some estimates indicate that the cumulative number of mobile devices shipped with the Symbian OS up to the end of Q2 2010 is 385 million.

By April 5, 2011, Nokia released Symbian under a new license and converted to a proprietary shared-source model as opposed to an open source project.

On February 11, 2011, Nokia announced that it would migrate away from Symbian to Windows Phone 7. Nokia CEO Stephen Elop announced Nokia's first ever Windows Phones in the Nokia World 2011, the Lumia 800 and Lumia 710. These phones were launched on November 14, 2011. In June 22, 2011 Nokia has made an agreement with Accenture as an outsourcing program. Accenture will provide Symbian based software development and support services to Nokia through 2016 and about 2,800 Nokia employees will be Accenture employees at early October 2011. The transfer was completed on September 30, 2011

The Symbian platform was created by merging and integrating software assets contributed by Nokia, NTT DoCoMo, Sony Ericsson and Symbian Ltd., including Symbian OS assets at its core, the S60 platform, and parts of the UIQ and MOAP(S) user interfaces.

In December 2008, Nokia bought Symbian Ltd., the company behind Symbian OS; consequently, Nokia became the major contributor to Symbian's code, since it then possessed the development resources for both the Symbian OS core and the user interface. Since then Nokia has been maintaining its own code repository for the platform development, regularly releasing its development to the public repository. Symbian was intended to be developed by a community led by the Symbian Foundation, which was first announced in June 2008 and which officially launched in April 2009. Its objective was to publish the source code for the entire Symbian platform under the OSI- and FSF-approved Eclipse Public License (EPL). The code was published under EPL on 4 February 2010; Symbian Foundation reported this event to be the largest codebase transitioned to Open Source in history.

However, some important components within Symbian OS were licensed from third parties, which prevented the foundation from publishing the full source under EPL immediately; instead much of the source was published under a more restrictive Symbian Foundation License (SFL) and access to the full source code was limited to member companies only, although membership was open to any organisation.

In November 2010, the Symbian Foundation announced that due to a lack of support from funding members, it would transition to a licensing-only organisation; Nokia announced it would take over the stewardship of the Symbian platform. Symbian Foundation will remain the trademark holder and licensing entity and will only have non-executive directors involved.

On February 11, 2011, Nokia announced a partnership with Microsoft which would see it adopt Windows Phone 7 for smartphones, reducing the number of devices running Symbian over the coming two years. As a consequence, the use of the Symbian platform for building mobile applications dropped rapidly. A June 2011 research indicated that over 39% of mobile developers using Symbian at the time of publication, were planning to abandon the platform.

By April 5, 2011, Nokia ceased to open source any portion of the Symbian software and reduced its collaboration to a small group of pre-selected partners in Japan. Source code released under the EPL remains available in third party repositories.

Operating System:
The All over Model contains the following layers, from top to bottom:

UI Framework Layer
Application Services Layer
Java ME
OS Services Layer
generic OS services
communications services
multimedia and graphics services
connectivity services
Base Services Layer
Kernel Services & Hardware Interface Layer
The Base Services Layer is the lowest level reachable by user-side operations; it includes the File Server and User Library, a Plug-In Framework which manages all plug-ins, Store, Central Repository, DBMS and cryptographic services. It also includes the Text Window Server and the Text Shell: the two basic services from which a completely functional port can be created without the need for any higher layer services.

Symbian has a microkernel architecture, which means that the minimum necessary is within the kernel to maximise robustness, availability and responsiveness. It contains a scheduler, memory management and device drivers, but other services like networking, telephony and filesystem support are placed in the OS Services Layer or the Base Services Layer. The inclusion of device drivers means the kernel is not a true microkernel. The EKA2 real-time kernel, which has been termed a nanokernel, contains only the most basic primitives and requires an extended kernel to implement any other abstractions.

Symbian is designed to emphasise compatibility with other devices, especially removable media file systems. Early development of EPOC led to adopting FAT as the internal file system, and this remains, but an object-oriented persistence model was placed over the underlying FAT to provide a POSIX-style interface and a streaming model. The internal data formats rely on using the same APIs that create the data to run all file manipulations. This has resulted in data-dependence and associated difficulties with changes and data migration.

There is a large networking and communication subsystem, which has three main servers called: ETEL (EPOC telephony), ESOCK (EPOC sockets) and C32 (responsible for serial communication). Each of these has a plug-in scheme. For example, ESOCK allows different ".PRT" protocol modules to implement various networking protocol schemes. The subsystem also contains code that supports short-range communication links, such as Bluetooth, IrDA and USB.

There is also a large volume of user interface (UI) Code. Only the base classes and substructure were contained in Symbian OS, while most of the actual user interfaces were maintained by third parties. This is no longer the case. The three major UIs — S60, UIQ and MOAP — were contributed to Symbian in 2009. Symbian also contains graphics, text layout and font rendering libraries.

All native Symbian C++ applications are built up from three framework classes defined by the application architecture: an application class, a document class and an application user interface class. These classes create the fundamental application behaviour. The remaining needed functions, the application view, data model and data interface, are created independently and interact solely through their APIs with the other classes.

Many other things do not yet fit into this model — for example, SyncML, Java ME providing another set of APIs on top of most of the OS and multimedia. Many of these are frameworks, and vendors are expected to supply plug-ins to these frameworks from third parties (for example, Helix Player for multimedia codecs). This has the advantage that the APIs to such areas of functionality are the same on many phone models, and that vendors get a lot of flexibility. But it means that phone vendors needed to do a great deal of integration work to make a Symbian OS phone.

Symbian includes a reference user-interface called "TechView." It provides a basis for starting customisation and is the environment in which much Symbian test and example code runs. It is very similar to the user interface from the Psion Series 5 personal organiser and is not used for any production phone user interface

Hybrid Vehicles

Two-wheeled and cycle-type vehiclesMopeds, electric bicycles, and even electric kick scooters are a simple form of a hybrid, as power is delivered both via an internal combustion engine or electric motor and the rider's muscles. Early prototypes of motorcycles in the late 19th century used the same principles.

In a parallel hybrid bicycle human and motor power are mechanically coupled at the pedal drive train or at the rear or the front wheel, e.g. using a hub motor, a roller pressing onto a tire, or a connection to a wheel using a transmission element. Human and motor torques are added together. Almost all manufactured models are of this type. See Motorized bicycles, Mopeds and for more information.
In a series hybrid bicycle (SH) the user powers a generator using the pedals. This is converted into electricity and can be fed directly to the motor giving a chainless bicycle but also to charge a battery. The motor draws power from the battery and must be able to deliver the full mechanical torque required because none is available from the pedals. SH bicycles are commercially available, because they are very simple in theory and manufacturing.
The first known prototype and publication of an SH bicycle is by Augustus Kinzel (US Patent 3'884'317) in 1975. In 1994 Bernie Macdonalds conceived the Electrilite SH lightweight vehicle which used power electronics allowing regenerative braking and pedaling while stationary. In 1995 Thomas Müller designed a "Fahrrad mit elektromagnetischem Antrieb" in his 1995 diploma thesis and built a functional vehicle. In 1996 Jürg Blatter and Andreas Fuchs of Berne University of Applied Sciences built an SH bicycle and in 1998 mounted the system onto a Leitra tricycle (European patent EP 1165188). In 1999 Harald Kutzke described his concept of the "active bicycle": the aim is to approach the ideal bicycle weighing nothing and having no drag by electronic compensation. Until 2005 Fuchs and colleagues built several prototype SH tricycles and quadricycles.

Hybrid power trains use diesel-electric or turbo-electric to power railway locomotives, buses, heavy goods vehicles, mobile hydraulic machinery, and ships. Typically some form of heat engine (usually diesel) drives an electric generator or hydraulic pump which powers one or more electric or hydraulic motors. There are advantages in distributing power through wires or pipes rather than mechanical elements especially when multiple drives—e.g. driven wheels or propellers—are required. There is power lost in the double conversion from typically diesel fuel to electricity to power an electric or hydraulic motor. With large vehicles the advantages often outweigh the disadvantages especially as the conversion losses typically decrease with size. With the exception of non nuclear submarines, presently there is no or relatively little secondary energy storage capacity on most heavy vehicles, e.g. auxiliary batteries and hydraulic accumulators—this is changing.

Snaptu(Mobile Application)

Works Allmost on all leading phones.

Snaptu (pronounced "snap tu") is a free mobile application platform that runs on virtually every type of Internet-enabled mobile phone. It allows the user to access popular services, varying from social networks like Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and Picasa to entertainment news, blogs, sports and local guides

Snaptu’s focus is its ability to connect users with even a rudimentary phone to the mobile web. The product’s cross-platform capabilities stem from its methodology, in which the applications do not run on the mobile phone itself, but on Internet servers.

Snaptu is a collection of apps including Twitter, LinkedIn, Picasa, Flickr and others, available from its own app store.. Snaptu bundles more than 30 free applications and more than 25 web links as of September 23, 2010.

As of January 2011, the Snaptu application has over 78 million users worldwide.

Part OF FACEBOOK:
Facebook and Snaptu had been working on a Facebook application and had released it on 19 January, 2011. According to the company blog it works on 80% of mobile phones available in the market.

A press release in March 2011 at the company blog confirmed that the company has agreed to be acquired by Facebook. Company stated in its blog that the reason for being acquired by Facebook was that "it offered the best opportunity to keep accelerating the pace of our product development." It also stated that the acquisition will end in few weeks and in the transition period Snaptu will continue to operate normally. According to Israeli publication Globes, the deal is worth US$60–US$70 million.


Snaptu Mobile Phone Home PageAt the end of October Snaptu announced to all its users that on the 11th of November 2011 they would end most of their apps. This includes the discontinuation of their Twitter, Cricinfo and LinkedIn apps. Instead of continuing development on these applications, the focus would turn to their standalone Facebook app.

What's App(Instant Messenger)

Works On:Windows Phones,Ios,Blackberry,Symbian

What's App is not available for Java Phones

WhatsApp Messenger is a proprietary, cross-platform instant messaging application for smartphones. In addition to basic messaging WhatsApp Messenger users can send each other images, video and audio media messages.

WhatsApp Messenger is available for iPhone, BlackBerry,Android, Symbian and Windows Phone only. WhatsApp synchronizes with the phone's contact's book, so users do not need to add contacts in a separate book.[citation needed]

Users must buy WhatsApp if they wish to use it in iOS - 0,79€ in Europe, 69p in the UK store, and US $0.99 everywhere else. For all other platforms users must pay US $1.99 yearly with the first year being free.

The name WhatsApp is a pun of the popular phrase "What's up?"

In May 2011 there was a security hole reported in WhatsApp which left user accounts open for hijacking.

Communications made by WhatsApp are not themselves encrypted, data is sent and received in plaintext, meaning messages can be easily read if packets can be sniffed.

In September 2011 a new version of the WhatsApp Messenger application for iPhones was released. In this new version, the developer has closed a number of critical security holes that allowed forged messages to be sent and messages from any WhatsApp user to be read.

What's Marketing?

Marketing is the process used to determine what products or services may be of interest to customers, and the strategy to use in sales, communications and business development. It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business developments. It is an integrated process through which companies build strong customer relationships and create value for their customers and for themselves.

Marketing is used to identify the customer, satisfy the customer, and keep the customer. With the customer as the focus of its activities, marketing management is one of the major components of business management. Marketing evolved to meet the stasis in developing new markets caused by mature markets and overcapacities in the last 2-3 centuries.[citation needed] The adoption of marketing strategies requires businesses to shift their focus from production to the perceived needs and wants of their customers as the means of staying profitable.[citation needed]

The term marketing concept holds that achieving organizational goals depends on knowing the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions. It proposes that in order to satisfy its organizational objectives, an organization should anticipate the needs and wants of consumers and satisfy these more effectively than competitors.



Marketing is further defined by the AMA as "an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders." The term developed from an original meaning which referred literally to going to a market to buy or sell goods or services. Seen from a systems point of view, sales process engineering marketing is "a set of processes that are interconnected and interdependent with other functions, whose methods can be improved using a variety of relatively new approaches."

The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as "the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably." A different concept is the value-based marketing which states the role of marketing to contribute to increasing shareholder value. In this context, marketing is defined as "the management process that seeks to maximize returns to shareholders by developing relationships with valued customers and creating a competitive advantage."

Marketing practice tended to be seen as a creative industry in the past, which included advertising, distribution and selling. However, because the academic study of marketing makes extensive use of social sciences, psychology, sociology, mathematics, economics, anthropology and neuroscience, the profession is now widely recognized as a science, allowing numerous universities to offer Master-of-Science (MSc) programmes. The overall process starts with marketing research and goes through market segmentation, business planning and execution, ending with pre- and post-sales promotional activities. It is also related to many of the creative arts. The marketing literature is also adept at re-inventing itself and its vocabulary according to the times and the culture.

Browne (2010) reveals that supermarkets intensively research and study consumer behaviour, spending millions of dollars. Their aim is to make sure that shoppers leave spending much more than they originally planned. ‘Choice’ examined the theory of trolleyology finding that many shoppers instinctively look to the right when they’re in the supermarket. Supermarkets prey on this biological trait by positioning many expensive impulse buying products to the right of the checkout. These products consist of the latest DVDs, magazines, chocolates, expensive batteries and other tempting products that wouldn’t normally be thought of.

Supermarkets move products around to confuse shoppers, the entry point is another marketing tactic. Consumer psychologist Dr. Paul Harrison states that supermarkets are constantly using different methodologies of selling. One method is performing regular overhauls changing the locations of products all around to break habitual shopping, and break your budget. Harrison also contends that people who are shopping in a counter clockwise direction are likely to spend more money than people shopping in a clockwise direction. Consumer psychologists (cited in Browne, 2010) reported that most people write with their right hand, thus it is a biological trait that people have the tendency of veering to the right when shopping, it is understood that supermarkets capitalize on this fact. Found on the capturing right-hand side are usually appealing products that a shopper might impulsively e.g. an umbrella when the weather is dull.

Online Advertising

CPC (Cost Per Click) or PPC (Pay per click) is when advertisers pay each time a user clicks on their listing and is redirected to their website. They do not actually pay for the listing, but only when the listing is clicked on. This system allows advertising specialists to refine searches and gain information about their market. Under the Pay per click pricing system, advertisers pay for the right to be listed under a series of target rich words that direct relevant traffic to their website, and pay only when someone clicks on their listing which links directly to their website. CPC differs from CPV in that each click is paid for regardless of whether the user makes it to the target site.
CPA (Cost Per Action or Cost Per Acquisition) or PPF (Pay Per Performance) advertising is performance based and is common in the affiliate marketing sector of the business. In this payment scheme, the publisher takes all the risk of running the ad, and the advertiser pays only for the amount of users who complete a transaction, such as a purchase or sign-up. This model ignores any inefficiency in the sellers web site conversion funnel. The following are common variants of CPA:
CPL (Cost Per Lead) advertising is identical to CPA advertising and is based on the user completing a form, registering for a newsletter or some other action that the merchant feels will lead to a sale.
CPS (Cost Per Sale), PPS (Pay Per Sale), or CPO (Cost Per Order) advertising is based on each time a sale is made.
CPE (Cost Per Engagement) is a form of Cost Per Action pricing first introduced in March 2008. Differing from cost-per-impression or cost-per-click models, a CPE model means advertising impressions are free and advertisers pay only when a user engages with their specific ad unit. Engagement is defined as a user interacting with an ad in any number of ways.
Cost per conversion Describes the cost of acquiring a customer, typically calculated by dividing the total cost of an ad campaign by the number of conversions. The definition of "Conversion" varies depending on the situation: it is sometimes considered to be a lead, a sale, or a purchase

Types:
for as long as the website exists with no extra costs.

Floating ad: An ad which moves across the user's screen or floats above the content.
Expanding ad: An ad which changes size and which may alter the contents of the webpage.
Polite ad: A method by which a large ad will be downloaded in smaller pieces to minimize the disruption of the content being viewed
Wallpaper ad: An ad which changes the background of the page being viewed.
Trick banner: A banner ad that looks like a dialog box with buttons. It simulates an error message or an alert.
Pop-up: A new window which opens in front of the current one, displaying an advertisement, or entire webpage.
Pop-under: Similar to a Pop-Up except that the window is loaded or sent behind the current window so that the user does not see it until they close one or more active windows.
Video ad: similar to a banner ad, except that instead of a static or animated image, actual moving video clips are displayed. This is the kind of advertising most prominent in television, and many advertisers will use the same clips for both television and online advertising.
Map ad: text or graphics linked from, and appearing in or over, a location on an electronic map such as on Google Maps.
Mobile ad: an SMS text or multi-media message sent to a cell phone.
Superstitial: An animated adv on a Web page from Enliven Marketing Technologies. It uses video, 3D content or Flash to provide a TV-like advertisement. Used to be known as Unicast Transitional ads as they were originally made by Unicast Communications but the company was acquired by Viewpoint Corporation in 2004, which then changed its name to Enliven in 2008.
Interstitial ad: a full-page ad that appears before a user reaches their original destination.
In addition, ads containing streaming video or streaming audio are becoming very popular with advertisers.

Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Electron Cloud

The electrons in an atom are attracted to the protons in the nucleus by the electromagnetic force. This force binds the electrons inside an electrostatic potential well surrounding the smaller nucleus, which means that an external source of energy is needed for the electron to escape. The closer an electron is to the nucleus, the greater the attractive force. Hence electrons bound near the center of the potential well require more energy to escape than those at greater separations.

Electrons, like other particles, have properties of both a particle and a wave. The electron cloud is a region inside the potential well where each electron forms a type of three-dimensional standing wave—a wave form that does not move relative to the nucleus. This behavior is defined by an atomic orbital, a mathematical function that characterises the probability that an electron appears to be at a particular location when its position is measured. Only a discrete (or quantized) set of these orbitals exist around the nucleus, as other possible wave patterns rapidly decay into a more stable form. Orbitals can have one or more ring or node structures, and they differ from each other in size, shape and orientation.


Wave functions of the first five atomic orbitals. The three 2p orbitals each display a single angular node that has an orientation and a minimum at the center.Each atomic orbital corresponds to a particular energy level of the electron. The electron can change its state to a higher energy level by absorbing a photon with sufficient energy to boost it into the new quantum state. Likewise, through spontaneous emission, an electron in a higher energy state can drop to a lower energy state while radiating the excess energy as a photon. These characteristic energy values, defined by the differences in the energies of the quantum states, are responsible for atomic spectral lines.

The amount of energy needed to remove or add an electron—the electron binding energy—is far less than the binding energy of nucleons. For example, it requires only 13.6 eV to strip a ground-state electron from a hydrogen atom, compared to 2.23 million eV for splitting a deuterium nucleus. Atoms are electrically neutral if they have an equal number of protons and electrons. Atoms that have either a deficit or a surplus of electrons are called ions. Electrons that are farthest from the nucleus may be transferred to other nearby atoms or shared between atoms. By this mechanism, atoms are able to bond into molecules and other types of chemical compounds like ionic and covalent network crystals.

Nucleus(Physics)

All the bound protons and neutrons in an atom make up a tiny atomic nucleus, and are collectively called nucleons. The radius of a nucleus is approximately equal to , where A is the total number of nucleons. This is much smaller than the radius of the atom, which is on the order of 105 fm. The nucleons are bound together by a short-ranged attractive potential called the residual strong force. At distances smaller than 2.5 fm this force is much more powerful than the electrostatic force that causes positively charged protons to repel each other.

Atoms of the same element have the same number of protons, called the atomic number. Within a single element, the number of neutrons may vary, determining the isotope of that element. The total number of protons and neutrons determine the nuclide. The number of neutrons relative to the protons determines the stability of the nucleus, with certain isotopes undergoing radioactive decay.

The neutron and the proton are different types of fermions. The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical effect that prohibits identical fermions, such as multiple protons, from occupying the same quantum physical state at the same time. Thus every proton in the nucleus must occupy a different state, with its own energy level, and the same rule applies to all of the neutrons. This prohibition does not apply to a proton and neutron occupying the same quantum state.

For atoms with low atomic numbers, a nucleus that has a different number of protons than neutrons can potentially drop to a lower energy state through a radioactive decay that causes the number of protons and neutrons to more closely match. As a result, atoms with roughly matching numbers of protons and neutrons are more stable against decay. However, with increasing atomic number, the mutual repulsion of the protons requires an increasing proportion of neutrons to maintain the stability of the nucleus, which modifies this trend. Thus, there are no stable nuclei with equal proton and neutron numbers above atomic number Z = 20 (calcium); and as Z increases toward the heaviest nuclei, the ratio of neutrons per proton required for stability increases to about 1.5.


Illustration of a nuclear fusion process that forms a deuterium nucleus, consisting of a proton and a neutron, from two protons. A positron (e+)—an antimatter electron—is emitted along with an electron neutrino.The number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus can be modified, although this can require very high energies because of the strong force. Nuclear fusion occurs when multiple atomic particles join to form a heavier nucleus, such as through the energetic collision of two nuclei. For example, at the core of the Sun protons require energies of 3–10 keV to overcome their mutual repulsion—the coulomb barrier—and fuse together into a single nucleus. Nuclear fission is the opposite process, causing a nucleus to split into two smaller nuclei—usually through radioactive decay. The nucleus can also be modified through bombardment by high energy subatomic particles or photons. If this modifies the number of protons in a nucleus, the atom changes to a different chemical element.

If the mass of the nucleus following a fusion reaction is less than the sum of the masses of the separate particles, then the difference between these two values can be emitted as a type of usable energy (such as a gamma ray, or the kinetic energy of a beta particle), as described by Albert Einstein's mass–energy equivalence formula, E = mc2, where m is the mass loss and c is the speed of light. This deficit is part of the binding energy of the new nucleus, and it is the non-recoverable loss of the energy that causes the fused particles to remain together in a state that requires this energy to separate.

The fusion of two nuclei that create larger nuclei with lower atomic numbers than iron and nickel—a total nucleon number of about 60—is usually an exothermic process that releases more energy than is required to bring them together. It is this energy-releasing process that makes nuclear fusion in stars a self-sustaining reaction. For heavier nuclei, the binding energy per nucleon in the nucleus begins to decrease. That means fusion processes producing nuclei that have atomic numbers higher than about 26, and atomic masses higher than about 60, is an endothermic process. These more massive nuclei can not undergo an energy-producing fusion reaction that can sustain the hydrostatic equilibrium of a star.